However, the forests are under great threat due to uncontrolled cutting and extensive grazing on land. Communities cut down trees for space, for fuel and for livelihood. Middlemen make huge profits while locals earn little. Therefore they resort to cutting trees for timber rather than collecting nuts. As demand grows, pine nuts are increasingly collected unsustainably. Instead of leaving a few cones thus allowing natural regeneration, communities gather all the cones they find.
NaturePakistan (WWF) has set up a project to cut out the middlemen who buy chilgozas from villagers. Also the harvesters get 2000 rupees for each tree they fell currently, but there is now a 10,000 rupee fine for cutting down a young tree.